# Application Gallery

The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics® tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, structural, acoustics, fluid, heat, and chemical disciplines. You can use these examples as a starting point for your own simulation work by downloading the tutorial model or demo app file and its accompanying instructions.

Search for tutorials and apps relevant to your area of expertise via the Quick Search feature. To download the MPH-files, log in or create a COMSOL Access account that is associated with a valid COMSOL license. Note that many of the examples featured here can also be accessed via the Application Libraries that are built into the COMSOL Multiphysics® software and available from the File menu.

### Electrodeposition of a Microconnector Bump in 2D

This model demonstrates the impact of convection and diffusion on the transport-limited electrodeposition of a copper microconnector bump (metal post). Microconnector bumps are used in various types of electronic applications for interconnecting components, for instance liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and driver chips. The location of the bumps on the electrode surface is controlled by the use ...

### Aluminum Anodization

When anodizing aluminum, the surface is electrochemically altered to form an abrasive and corrosion-resistive Al{:sub}2{:/sub}O{:sub}3{:/sub} film. The electrode kinetics during the process are only marginally affected as the oxide layer grows, so a stationary analysis of the current distribution is sufficient to determine the uniformity of this layer’s thickness. Anode kinetics from ...

### Electrode Growth Next to an Insulator

This example shows how to model secondary current distribution and electrode growth with a moving geometry. To avoid numerical instabilities, a seed layer is introduced in the initial geometry to obtain a right angle at the edge between the growing electrode and the insulator.

### Secondary Current Distribution in a Zinc Electrowinning Cell

This is a model of the secondary current distribution in a zinc electrowinning cell. The model investigates the impact on the current distribution when changing the electrode alignment in a parametric study. The geometry is in 2D.

### Superfilling Electrodeposition

This example illustrates the concept of superfilling in electrodeposition. The deposition rate is accelerated in concave areas of the surface, where the concentration of a surface catalyst is increased due to the area contraction of the moving boundary.

### Electrodeposition of an Inductor Coil

This example models the deposition of an inductor coil in 3D. The geometry includes the extrusion of the deposition pattern into an isolating photoresist mask, and a diffusion layer on top of the photoresist. The mass transfer of copper ions in the electrolyte has a major impact on the deposition kinetics, resulting in higher deposition rates in the outer parts of the deposition pattern. The ...

### Electrodeposition on a Resistive Patterned Wafer

This example models time-dependent copper deposition on a resistive wafer in a cupplater reactor. As the deposited layer builds up, the resistive losses of the deposited layer decreases. The benefit of using a current thief for a more uniform deposit is demonstrated.

### Electrodeposition of a Microconnector Bump with Deforming Geometry in 3D

This model simulates the shape evolution of a microconnector bump over time as copper deposits on an electrode surface. Transport of cupric ions in the electrolyte occurs by convection and diffusion. The electrode kinetics are described by a concentration dependent Butler-Volmer expression. The model is an extension to 3D of the Electrodeposition of a Microconnector Bump in 2D example.

### Fountain Flow Effects on Electrodeposition on a Rotating Wafer

This example extends the analysis made in the model Electrodeposition on a Resistive Patterned Wafer by including the diffusion and convection of copper ions in the electrolyte. The coupled mass transport convection-diffusion effects are of interest in this type of reactor since they will be accentuated towards the rim of the wafer, limiting the current density. This will counter balance the ...

### Rotating Cylinder Hull Cell

Rotating cylinder Hull cells are an important experimental tool in electroplating and electrodeposition and are used for the measurement of nonuniform current distribution, mass transport, and throwing power of plating baths. The model reproduces the results for a commercially available cell (RotaHull(R)) as published in paper [1]. In particular, it investigates the primary, secondary, and ...

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