# Application Gallery

The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics® tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, structural, acoustics, fluid, heat, and chemical disciplines. You can use these examples as a starting point for your own simulation work by downloading the tutorial model or demo app file and its accompanying instructions.

Search for tutorials and apps relevant to your area of expertise via the Quick Search feature. To download the MPH-files, log in or create a COMSOL Access account that is associated with a valid COMSOL license. Note that many of the examples featured here can also be accessed via the Application Libraries that are built into the COMSOL Multiphysics® software and available from the File menu.

### Turbulent Flow Over a Backward Facing Step

The backward facing step is an interesting case for studying the performance and solution strategy of a turbulence model. In this case, the flow is subjected to a sudden increase of cross-sectional area, resulting in a separation of flow starting at the point of expansion. Spatial variations in the velocity field cause production of turbulence outside the wall region and its interaction with ...

### Tin Melting Front

This example demonstrates how to model phase transition by a moving boundary interface according to the Stefan problem. A square cavity containing both solid and liquid tin is submitted to a temperature difference between left and right boundaries. Fluid and solid parts are solved in separate domains sharing a moving melting front. The position of this boundary through time is calculated ...

### Steady-State 2D Axisymmetric Heat Transfer with Conduction

This model how to build and solve a conductive heat transfer problem using the Heat Transfer interface. The model, taken from a NAFEMS benchmark collection, shows an axisymmetric steady-state thermal analysis. As opposed to the NAFEMS benchmark model, we use the temperature unit kelvin instead of degrees Celsius for this model.

### Thermal Stress Analysis of a Turbine Stator Blade

The conditions within gas turbines are extreme. The pressure can be as high as 40 bar, and the temperature more than 1000 K. Any new component must therefore be carefully designed to be able to withstand thermal stresses, vibrations and loads asserted by the fluid rushing through the turbine. If a component fails, the high rotational speeds can result in a complete rupture of the whole turbine. ...

### Forced Convection Cooling of an Enclosure with Fan and Grille

This study simulates the thermal behavior of a computer Power Supply Unit (PSU). Most of such electronic enclosures include cooling devices to avoid electronic components to be damaged by excessively high temperatures. In this model, an extracting fan and a perforated grille cause an air flow in the enclosure to cool internal heating.

This model shows how to build and solve a radiative heat transfer problem using the Heat Transfer interface. In particular, this 2D model illustrates the use of the surface-to-surface radiation feature. In this model, three surfaces form a cavity. Heat flux is set at two outer boundaries, while temperature is set on the third. The model's simple geometry, allows a comparison of results ...

### Evaporation in Porous Media with Small Evaporation Rate

Evaporation in porous media is an important process in food and paper industry among others. Many physical effects must be considered: fluid flow, heat transfer in porous media and transport of moisture. This tutorial describes how dry air flowing through a humid porous medium can partially dry it. It is assumed that the initial amount of liquid water in the porous medium is large enough and ...

### Parameterized Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Preset Model

Double-pipe heat exchangers, with their typical U-turn shape, are one of the simplest and cheapest type of heat exchangers used in the chemical process industry. This example studies the cooling of hot oil (130°C) by a cool oil (60°C) entering in counter-current. As the oils flow through the system, the material properties of both change with the varying temperature. The model uses the ...

### Inline Induction Heater

Ferritic stainless steels have become more and more popular in the food industry because of their relatively low and stable price and due to the absence of nickel in their components. Their resistance to corrosion can be improved by adding chromium or molybdenum, and their magnetic properties offer new techniques in food processing. The new Inline Induction Heater application computes the ...

### Freeze-Drying

Freeze-drying, or lyophilization, is a process for drying heat-sensitive substances such as foods, blood plasma, and antibiotics. The wet substance is frozen and then, through sublimation, ice (or some other frozen solvent) is removed in the presence of a high vacuum. This example models the process of ice sublimation in a vial under vacuum-chamber conditions, a test case for many freeze-drying ...

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